Layout of Civil War Camps

Research and Collections

The encampment covers a 5 acre area and was carefully located to allow for access to water and drainage.  Survey of the southernmost camp allowed the layout to be deciphered.  Huts were laid out in company streets (a company contained around 50 soldiers with the company officer positioned at the top of each street.  This arrangement of huts along streets is very similar to what other surveys have found in period camps and contemporary military protocol for camp layout for both the Union and Confederate army.  The rows of huts ran from the top of the ridge downslope to the northwest for a distance of approximately 300 feet.  Based on spacing of 15 feet between hearths found during the excavations, there would be between 15 to 20 hut sites located on each street, and approximately 150 huts within the camp.  

F100, excavated completely down to the clay floor Profile showing accumulation of rubble in the ground cellar
Map showing layout of McGowan encampment.  Note position of officers huts at the top of the company streets and regimental officers at the top of the ridge.
Photograph of depressions between mounds (remains of fire box for huts).  The visibility of the depressions allowed archaeologists to easily the layout of huts through walk over surveys.